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导读: The,Ires,of,Greece诗歌翻译版(共2篇)外研社版必修3课文原文及中文翻译必修3 Book3Great European CitiesParisParis is the capital and largest city of France,...

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【一】:外研社版必修3课文原文及中文翻译

必修3 Book3

Great European Cities

Paris

Paris is the capital and largest city of France, situated on the River Seine. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world and is visited by more than eight million tourists every year. The most popular place for tourists is the Eiffel Tower, the famous symbol of Paris. One of the world‟s largest art galleries, the Louvre, is also located in Paris. The city is also famous for its restaurants, cafes and theatres. About two-thirds of France‟s artists and writers live in Paris.

Barcelona

Barcelona is the second largest city of Spain and is situated on the northeast coast, about five hundred kilometers east of the Spanish capital, Madrid. One of Barcelna‟s most famous landmarks is the Church of the Sagrada Familia, which was designed by an architect called Antonio Gaudi. Gaudi worked on the project from 1882 until his death in 1926. The church hasn‟t been finished yet!

Florence

Florence is an Italian city which became famous because of the Renaissance, a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s and lasted for three hundred years. During the Renaissance, some of the greatest painters of all time lived and worked in Florence. Many of Florence‟s most beautiful paintings and sculptures were produced by great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Florence is visited each year by about a million tourists who come to see the art galleries, churches and museums. The Uffiziz Palace is the most famous art gallery in the city.

Athens

Athens, the capital of Greece, is known as the birthplace of western civilization. Two thousand four hundred years ago, it was the world‟s most powerful city. Buildings such as the Parthenon on the Acropolis Hill were built during this period. Greece‟s best writers lived in ancient Athens. Their work has influenced other writers ever since.

The European Union

What Is the European Union?

The European Union is an organization of European countries. The countries are independent and are governed in different ways. In the United Kingdom, for example, the head of state is a king or queen. In France, on the other hand, the head of state is a president. But each of them sends representatives to the European Parliament, which has some control over what happens in each of the member countries.

How Did It start?

The idea of the European Union began in the 1950s. The first members were France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Italy. Little by little, the number increased during the second half of the twentieth century. By the year 2000, there were 15 member countries. The new countries were Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

How Many Countries Belong to It Now?

In 2004, the European Union increased to 25 members. The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia, plus the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Malta all became members. The expanded European Union has a population of more than half a billion people, twice as big as the population of the United States.

Module 2 Developing and Developed Countries

The Human Development Report

In the year 2000, 147 world leaders agreed to work together to reduce poverty by 2015 or earlier. From this agreement came the Human Development Report.

One of the most important sections of this report is the Human Development Index. This examines the achievements of 175 countries. The Index measures a country„s achievements in three ways: life expectancy (how long people usually live), education and income. The index has some surprises. Norway is at the top of the list, while the US is at number 7. the other top five countries are: Iceland(2), Sweden(3), Australia(4), the Netherlands

(5). The UK is in the thirteenth position, while China is in the middle of the list. The bottom ten countries are all African countries, with Sierra Leone (in west Africa) at the bottom of the list.

The report describes eight Development Goals. The most important goals are to:

·reduce poverty and hunger;

·make sure that all children have education up to the age of 11;

·fight AIDS and other diseases;

·improve the environment of poor people, e.g. make sure they have safe drinking water;

·encourage developed countries to give more help to other countries.

The 2003 Human Development Report gives examples of successful development. For example, in nine years (1953-1962), China increased life expectancy by 13 years. In the last ten years in China, 150 million people moved out of poverty. However, the Challenges are still great. Every day 799 million people in developing countries are hungry. Over half of these are in South Asia or Afica. Although more than 80% of children in developing countries go to primary school, about 115 million children are not being educated. More than 1 billion people in developing countries do not drink safe water. However, in other regions of the world, e.g. Eastern Europe, water is now mostly safe to drink.

www.fz173.com_The,Ires,of,Greece诗歌翻译版。

The report shows that we are making some progress but that we need to make greater efforts. Although developed countries give some financial help, they need to give much more. Interestingly, the countries that give the most money are the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. These are among the five richest countries in the world, so it is right that they should do so.

Town Twinning

How are Oxford in the UK and Grenoble in France similar? Well, they‟re both medium-sized towns of between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. They both have universities and industries. Tourism is important to both of them, and they are both close to some of the most beautiful countryside in the region. But they share something else: they have a town twinning agreement.

Town twinning is not a new idea, but it has become more popular in recent years because it‟s now easier to find out about and visit other countries and towns. It‟s an agreement between towns or cities of similar size and age, and which have similar features such as tourism, industry, culture and entertainment.

Town twinning agreements encourage people from the two towns to visit each other. There are visits and exchanges between schools, theatre groups and sports teams. Visitors from the foreign town usually stay in the private homes of the town they are visiting. There is usually a big party for the visitors.

Town twinning agreements are perhaps most useful for students and people who want to practice speaking another language. This is because living with a foreign family for one or two weeks means that you have to speak their language, and as a result you improve fast.

Module 3 The Violence of Nature

What Is a Tornado?

A tornado is a rotating column of air from a thunderstorm to the ground. The most violent have winds of more than 400 kilometres per hour. Almost all of them occur in the US, in the area from Texas in the southeast to South Dakota in the north.

Tornadoes can pick up cars, trains and even houses and put them down in the next street – or even in the next town. They can take the fur off the back of a cat and the feathers off a chicken. They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was.

On average, there are 800 tornadoes in the US each year, causing about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. The worst tornado of all time occurred in 1925, affecting three US states: Missouri, Illinois and Indiana. By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and 2,700 had been injured.

What Is a Hurricane?

Hurricanes are strong tropical storms, and they usually occur in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. There are violent winds of 120 kilometres per hour or more, which cause huge waves, heavy rain and floods. There are on average six Atlantic hurricanes each year and they usually affect the east coast of US from Texas to Maine.

The worst hurricane disaster of all time occurred on the 8th September 1900 in Galveston, Texas. Winds of 200 kilometres per hour and five-metre high waves hit the city. The disaster killed 6,000 people in a population of 37,000 and destroyed 3,600 buildings.

An Extraordinary Event

This is a story about the 1900 Galveston hurricane.

Charles Coghlan was a nineteenth-century Irish actor who went to live in Canada. He then moved to New York, where he became famous. By the 1890s, he had moved to Galveston, where he died in 1899, a year before the hurricane struck. The cemetery where Coghlan was buried was destroyed by the hurricane and Cohglan‟s coffin ended up in the sea.

Eight years later, the coffin was found by fishermen in the sea near his home on Prince Edward Island in the east of Canada. The Gulf Stream had carried it 3,000 kilometres up the eastern US coast to Prince Edward Island. Coghlan traveled back to Canada – after he had been buried in Texas!

Earthquakes Around the Pacific

About 400 earthquakes occur worldwide every day, more than a hundred thousand in a year.

China is situated in one of the most active earthquake regions in the world and there have been many terrible earthquakes. The most serious of these occurred in Hua County in Shaanxi Province in 1556. the earthquake affected eight provinces in Central China. It covered an area of 800 square kilometers. In some communities, 60 percent of the population were killed. In all, 830,000 people lost their lives.

The California Earthquake of the 18th of April 1906 is the worst earthquake that has ever happened in the United States. It took place at 5:15 a.m., and lasted for only a minute. However, it caused the worst natural disaster in the nation‟s history.

Fires caused by the California Earthquake did the most damage. The fires burned for three days, destroying a total of 25,000 buildings. About 500 people were killed in the city of San Francisco and 250,000 were made homeless. In the whole of California, the earthquake and fires caused about 3,000 deaths.

The 1906 earthquake was caused by a movement on the San Andreas Fault. One hundred years later, movements on the San Andreas Fault continue to cause problems for the whole of California.

Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia

Sandstorms in Asia

Sandstorms have been a major disaster for many Asian countries for centuries. Scientists have tried many ways to solve this problem and in China, a mass campaign has been started to help solve it.

Sandstorms are strong, dry winds that carry sand. They are often so thick that you cannot see the sun, and the wind is sometimes strong enough to move sand dunes. The four main places in the world where there are sandstorms are Central Asia, North America, Central Africa and Australia. Ren JIanbo, from Inner Mongolia described a terrible sandstorm he experienced as a child in the desert. “To have been caught in a sandstorm was a terrible experience,” he said. “There was nothing to be done. It was the most frightening and the most dangerous situation I‟ve ever been in. You just had to hope you‟d survive. I thought I was going to disappear under the sand.” Northwest China is part of the sandstorm centre in Central Asia. Sandstorms begin in desert areas. Sandstorms in China appear to have increased in recent years as a result of “desertification”. This is a process that happens when land becomes desert because of climate changes and because people cut down trees and dig up grass.

Sandstorms sometimes affect Beijing. Citizens wake up to an orange sky and strong winds that cover the city in a thick, brown-yellow dust. The storms sometimes continue all day and traffic moves very slowly because the thick dust makes it difficult to see.

The Chinese Central Weather Station can forecast a sandstorm some weeks before it arrives in Beijing, but the strength of the storm sometimes surprises people. When a sandstorm arrives in the city, weather experts advise people not to go out. Huang Xiaomei, who lives in Beijing says, “To be cycling in a sandstorm is frightening. The winds are very strong. It‟s difficult to breathe and the dust makes me ill. So if you want to go out, you‟d better wear a mask.”

The desert is only 250 kilometres away to the west of Beijing. To prevent it coming nearer, the government is planting trees. Already the government has planted more than 30 billion trees and plans to continue planting for the next five years. The Green Movementwww.fz173.com_The,Ires,of,Greece诗歌翻译版。

Some countries are better than others at looking after the environment. In Europe, Germany and the northern European countries work very hard to improve the environment. People in countries such as Germany put their garbage into different bags – paper in one bag, plastic in another bag, etc. the garbage is then taken away and, if possible, recycled. CFCs (chlorofluro-carbons), chemicals which are found in refrigerators and aerosol cans are not allowed. There are laws that do not allow people to burn too much coal.

In the 1970s, as people learnt more about environmental problems, the “Green” movement began and soon spread all over Europe. The “Green” movement tries to get governments to think seriously about the environment and how to look after it. It collects information about how industry is damaging the environment and gives this information to newspapers.

Module 5 Great People and Great Inventions of Ancient China

Philosophers of Ancient China

Ancient China was a place where states were often at war with each other. But it was also a time when there were many great philosophers. Confucius (551 BC-479 BC) is the philosopher whose influence has been the greatest. He stressed the importance of kindness, duty and order in society. Chinese society was influenced by

Mencius was a thinker whose teachings were very similar to those of Confucius. Mencius was born in 372 BC. His father died when he was young, and he was brought up by his mother. He became a student of Confucius‟s ideas, and was then given an important position in the government of a state. However, when he saw that the ruler was not following his advice, he resigned. For many years he traveled from state to state, teaching the principles of Confucius. He then became an adviser to another ruler. He spent his last years preparing a book of his teachings called The Book of Mencius. Mencius believed that the reason why man is different from animals is that man is good. He taught that if the government was kind, then people would be good. He believed that people were more important than rulers, and hated the state when it treated people badly.

Mozi was another teacher who was very influential. Born in 476 BC, he came from a family which was very poor. He became famous for his unusual clothes and behavior. Mozi founded the philosophy called Mohism. In some ways, his beliefs were similar to those of Confucius. For example, he considered that government was most important. As a result, he spent many years trying to find a state where people would follow his teachings. Mozi believed that all men were equal. His idea of love was different from the Confucian idea of kindness. Mozi taught that we should love all human beings and look after those who are weaker than ourselves. He hated the idea of war. Mozi died in 390 BC.

CULTURAL CORNER

The Industrial Revolution

In Europe, in the second half of the eighteenth century, there was an important change in society. This change was called the “Industrial Revolution”. Until then Europe had been a farming society. With the Industrial Revolution, factories appeared and mass production became possible for the first time. The factories were built in towns and as a result, the population of towns and cities greatly increased.

These changes became possible because of inventions such as the steam engine. This was invented in 1769 by James Watt and was the main energy source during the Industrial Revolution. At first the steam engine was used in mines, but it was soon used in factories and on the railways.

During the Industrial Revolution, factory owners became more powerful than land owners. Thousands of people left the countryside to work in the city. Often, factory workers lived in poor and crowded conditions. From 1830 to the early 20th century, the Industrial Revolution spread through Europe and the US and then to other countries such as Japan.

Module 6 Old and New

The Three Gorges Dam

Mao Zedong wrote a poem in which he dreamed of “walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain till a smooth lake rises in the narrow gorges”. Now his dream has come true. The power of the Yangtze River, which is the world‟s third longest river, has been harnessed by the Three Gorges Dam.

The Three Gorges Dam, which is the biggest construction project in China since the building of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, has been built to control flooding and provide hydro-electric power for the central region of China. The dam is nearly 200 meters high and 1.5 kilometers wide. It is the largest hydro-electric power station and dam in the world and has cost more than any other construction project in history.

Sun yat-sen, who was the leader of the 1911 Revolution, first suggested the idea of a dam across the Yangtze River in 1919. Three quarters of China‟s energy is produced by burning coal. In 1993, China used 1.2 billion tons of coal for heating and generating electricity. Unfortunately, burning coal causes serious air pollution and increases global warming. The dam will generate electricity equal to about 40 million tons of coal without causing so much air pollution.

【二】:必修三module 6单词+课文+翻译

Module6

bulletin n. 小型报刊;短新闻;报告

canal n. 运河

civil adj. 民用的;国内的

cliff n. 悬崖;峭壁

dam n. 坝;堤;水闸www.fz173.com_The,Ires,of,Greece诗歌翻译版。

engineering n. (土木)工程

gorge n. 峡谷

hydro-electric adj. 水力发电的

reservoir n. 水库

www.fz173.com_The,Ires,of,Greece诗歌翻译版。

structure n. 建筑物;结构

terminal n. (机场的)集散站;终点站;候机厅

date vi. 始于(某一历史时期)

accommodate vt. 容纳(乘客等)

carving n. (尤指木头、象牙等的)雕刻

construction n. 建造;建设;建

relic n. (常作复数)(历史的)遗迹;

site n. 场所;遗址

Buddhist n. 佛教徒

generate vt. 发(电)www.fz173.com_The,Ires,of,Greece诗歌翻译版。

harness vt. 利用;将(自然力)变成动力

historical adj. 历史的;有关历史的

narrow adj. 狭窄的

poem n. 诗;诗歌

submerge vt. 浸入水中;淹没

global adj. 全球的

watchtower n. 望台

remove vt. 迁移;搬迁

freezing adj. 冷冰冰的;极冷的

ridiculous adj. 荒唐的;可笑的

enormous adj. 巨大的;庞大的

observatory n. 观察台

foggy adj. 有浓雾的

crash vi. (飞机)失事;坠毁

MODULE 6 Old and New古今鉴

The Three Gorges Dam三峡大坝

“Walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain”“更立西江石壁,截断巫山云雨” Mao Zedong wrote a poem in which he dreamed of “Walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain till a smooth lake rises in the narrow gorges”. Now his dream has come true. The power of the Yangtze River, which is the world's third longest river, has been harnessed by the Three Gorges Dam. The Three Gorges Dam, which is the biggest construction project in China since the building of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, has been built to control flooding and provide hydro-electric power for the central region of China. The dam is nearly 200 metres high and 1.5 kilometres wide. It is the largest hydro-electric power station and dam in the world and has cost more than any other construction project in history. Sun Yat-sen, who was the leader of the 1911 Revolution, first suggested the ides of a dam across the Yangtze River in 1919. Three quarters of China's energy is produced by burning coal. In 1993, China used 1.2 billion tons of coal for heating and generating electricity. Unfortunately, burning coal causes serious air pollution and increases global warming. The dam will generate electricity equal to about 40 million tons of coal without causing so much air pollution. The reservoir has flooded 2 cities, 11 counties, 140 towns and more than 4,000 villages. More than a million people who lived in the region have moved from their homes. Now they're living a happy new life in different areas. The Three Gorges area is one of the most beautiful areas of China and the project has flooded some of China's most famous historical sites, including the Qu Yuan Temple, the Han Watchtower and the Moya Cliff carvings. About 800 historical relics have been submerged. Some of them are being removed and some are being put into museums.

毛泽东写过一首词,在词中,他想象了“更立西江石壁,截断巫山云雨,高峡出平湖”的壮丽景观。

如今,他的理想变成了现实,世界第三长河——长江的水力已经被三峡大坝很好地利用了。 三峡大坝是中国自万里长城和京杭大运河以来最大的建筑工程,它是作为防洪大坝和中国巨型水利枢纽而建的。

大坝高约200米,宽约1.5千米,是世界上最大的水力发电站和水坝,耗资超过历史上其他所有的建筑工程。

孙中山是1911年的革命领袖,他在1919年最先提出横跨长江建立大坝的想法。中国四分之三的能源是通过燃煤获得的。1993年,中国燃掉了12亿吨煤用于供热和发电。遗憾的是,燃煤造成严重的空气污染并使得全球变暖。

大坝将要生产相当于燃烧4000万吨煤所产生的电量,但却不会造成那么严重的空气污染。 水库淹没了2个城市、11个县市、140个城镇和4000多个村庄,

超过一百万住在这个地区的人们离开了他们的家乡。

现在,他们在不同的地区过着幸福的生活。

三峡坝区是中国最美丽的地方之一,三峡工程淹没了一些中国著名历史遗迹,包括屈原祠、汉阙、 摩崖石刻。

大约有800个历史遗迹被水淹没,这些被淹没的遗迹有的搬迁到其他地方了,有的搬到了博物馆。

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