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  主语从句在复合句中作主句的主语,引导主语从句的词有从属连词that, whether以及连接代词who, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever和连接副词when, where, why, how等.例如:
  That she was chosen made us very happy.她当选了使我们很高兴.
  What caused the accident is a complete mystery.是什么导致了这次事故还完全是一个谜.
  Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否来还是一个问题.
  Which team will win the match is still unknown.哪个队会赢得这场比赛还不知道.
  Whoever comes to the party will receive a present.参加聚会的每一个人都将收到一份礼物.
  When they will start has not been decided yet.他们何时出发还没决定.
  It is a pity that she has made such a mistake.她犯了这样一个错误,真是遗憾.
  It depends on the climate whether they are going shopping today.他们是否今天去购物还得看天气情况.
  1)It is + adj. / n. +从句
  It is a pity/shame that...遗憾的是……
  It is possible that...很可能……
  It is unlikely that...不可能……
  2)It +不及物动词+从句
  It seems/appears that...似乎……
  It happened that...碰巧……
  3)It + be +过去分词+从句
  It is said that...据说……
  It is known to all that...众所周知……
  It is reported that...据报道……
  It is believed that...据信……;人们相信……
  It is suggested that...有人建议……
  It must be pointed out that...必须指出……
  It has been proved that...已证明…….例如:
  It is believed that at least a score of buildings were damaged or destroyed.据信,至少有二十座楼房遭到破坏或彻底毁掉.
  It is suggested that the meeting should be put off.有人建议会议延期召开.
  It"s reported that three people were killed in the accident and five were hurt badly.据报道,事故中三人丧生,五人重伤.
  It is known to all that Taiwan is an inseparable part of China.众所周知,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分.
  1. Does _______ matter if he can"t finish the job on time?
  A. this B. that C. he D. it
  2. It worried her a bit _______ her hair was turning grey.
  A. which B. that C. if D. for
  3. _______ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.
  A. There B. This C. That D. It
  what既有引导主语从句的作用,同时又在从句中作句子成分(主语、宾语、表语等).这时what相当于all that/everything that...,常译成"所……的(东西、事情、话等.)";而that只起连接作用,本身无实际意义,在从句中也不担当任何句子成分.但that引导的主语从句放在句首时,不能省略that.例如:
  What is done can"t be undone. (谚语)已成定局,无可挽回.
  What we can"t get seems better than what we have.我们得不到的东西似乎比已得到的要好.
  That we should work out a plan to deal with the present serious situation is important.我们应该制定一项计划来应付目前严峻的形势,这一点非常重要.
  That a new teacher will come to teach us geography is true.一位新老师将来教我们地理,这是真的.
  4. _______ what they told me really true?
  A. Has B. Is C. Does D. Have
  5. It matters little _______ a man dies, but _______ matters much is _______ he lives.
  A. how; what; how B. how; it; how C. why; it; why D. that; what; that
  6. _______ she couldn"t understand was _______ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons.
  A. What; why B. That; what C. What; because D. Why; that
  7. It is pretty well understood _______ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today.
  A. that B. when C. what D. how
  8. _______ fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect.
  A. What B. That C. This D. Which
  9. -What made her parents so angry?
  - _______ she had failed in the examination.
  A. As B. Because C. Since D. That
  Whether she will go home or not is unknown.她是否回家还不得而知.
  Whether we shall raise ducks or geese remains to be decided.我们是养鸭还是养鹅仍没决定.
  =It remains to be decided whether/if we shall raise ducks or geese.
  但我们不能说If we shall raise ducks or geese remains to be decided.
  10. _______ we"ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.
  A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where
  连接代词who, which, whom, whose有各自的意义,起连接作用,并在从句中充当语、宾语、表语、定语等;连接副词when,where, why, how等有各自的意义,起连接作用,并在从句中充当状语.
  11. -Do you remember _______ he came?
  -Yes, I do. He came by car.
  A. how B. when C. that D. if
  12. It was a matter of _______ would take the position.
  A. who B. whose C. whom D. whomever
  13. -I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.
  -Is that _______ you had a few days off?
  A. why B. when C. what D. where
  14. I read about it in some book or other, does it matter _______ it was?
  A. where B. what C. how D. which
  在It is necessary / natural / important / strange...+ that-clause这类句型里,that所引导的主语从句中谓语动词用"should +原形",表虚似语气.例如:
  It is necessary that the problem should be settled at once.这个问题必须马上解决.
  It"s strange that he should have gone away without telling us.他竟然没向我们说一声就走了,真是奇怪.
  15. It is necessary that a college student _______ at least a foreign language.
  A. masters B. should master C. mastered D. will master
  "It be + adj./n. + that-clause"与强调句型均有It be...that...之类的语言标志,但不同的是:①前者中的that从句是主语从句.若删掉其中的It be和that,则剩余部分不论结构还是语意都不能成为一个句子;但若将后者中的It be和that去掉,则剩余部分的结构和语意仍能构成一个完整的句子.②强调句型译为汉语时可加上"正是……"或"就是……"之类的字眼,而主语从句则不可以.请比较下面两个句子:
  It is surprising that Mary should have won first place.令人惊奇的是玛莉竟然获得了第一名.
  It is Mary that has won first place.正是玛莉得了第一名.
  第一句话中的It是形式主语,that引导的是主语从句.句中的It is和that无法删除,一旦删除句子就不成立.
  第二句是强调句型,其中的It is和that可以去掉,因为没有It is和that句子仍然很通顺.
  Key: 1-5 DBDBA 6-10 ACBDB 11-15 AAADB


主语从句一、概述:在句子中起名词作用的各种从句统称为名词性从句。根据它们在句中的语法作用,这类从句又可分为主语从句、同位语从句、表语从句和宾语从句。 二.主语从句主要有三类:(1) 由连词that引导的主语从句:引导词that无含义,在句中不做成分,不可以省。例如:That you will win the medal seems unlikely.你想获得奖牌看起来是不可能的。That you are so indifferent bothers me.你如此冷淡使我很烦恼。That she survived the accident is a miracle.她在事故中幸免于难简直是奇迹。(2) 用连词 whether 引导的主语从句:whether有含义(是否),在句中不做成分,不可以省。
例如:Whether she is coming or not doesn’t matter too much.她来不来都无关紧要。(3) 用连接代词引导的主语从句(在由连接代词who, whose, whom, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever引导的名词性从句中,其连接代词在句中起名词性作用,担当一定成分).例如:What you need is more practice.你所需要的是更多的训练。What I want to know is this. 我想知道的就是这事。Whatever we do is to serve the people.我们无论做什么都是为人民服务。
(4)用连接副词when, where, why, how引导的名词性从句(其连接副词有含义,在句中作状语。)
eg:Where we should leave it is a problem.
When they will come hasn’t been made pubic.他们什么时候来还不知道。
1.it 做形式主语,而将主语从句放在句末(尤其是当谓语较短时)。例如:That light travels in straight lines is known to all.光沿直线传播,这是众所周知的事。=It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.众所周知光沿直线传播。When the plane is to take off has not been announced .飞机何时起飞还没有宣布。= It has not been announced when the plane is to take off.还没有宣布飞机何时起飞。(当what引导的主语从句表示“…的东西”时,一般不用it作形式主语。)错:It is a book what he wants.对:What he wants is a book. 他想要的是本书。例如:Has it been settled who will be sent to carry out the task ?谁将被派去执行这项任务决定了吗 ?
固定用法和译法(1) It is +名词+从句It is a fact that… 事实是……It is good news that … ……是好消息It is a question that … ……是个问题It is common knowledge that … ……是常识类似的名词还有:a pity;a wonder;a good thing; no wonder; surprise等。例如:It is a mystery to me how it all happened.这一切是怎么发生的是个谜。It is common knowledge that the whale is not a fish.鲸鱼不是鱼,这是常识。It is no surprise that Bob should have won the game.鲍勃会赢得这场比赛,这不足为奇。(2) It is +形容词+从句It is necessary that … 有必要……It is clear that … 很清楚……It is likely that … 很可能……It is important that … 重要的是……类似的形容词还有:strange; natural; obvious; true; good; wonderful; possible; unlikely; quite; unusual; certain; evident; worth-while; surprising; interesting; astonishing, etc.例如:It is obvious that conductors and insulators are both important in industry.很明显导体和绝缘体在工业中都很重要。It is doubtful whether she will be able to come.她是否能来令人怀疑。It was really astonishing that he refused to talk to you .他拒绝和你说话真是令人惊讶。It is essential that he should be here by the weekend .周末之前,他应该到这里是必要的。It seems obvious that we can not go on like this.很明显我们不能这样下去了。(3) It is +过去分词+从句It is said that … 据说……It is reported that … 据报道……It has been proved that … 已证明……It must be proved that… 必须指出……类似的过去分词还有:known; estimated; expected; believed; thought; hoped; noted; discussed; required; decided; suggested; demanded; made clear; found out,etc.例如:It is thought that he is the best player.大家都认为他是最好的选手。It is estimated that the vase is 2000 years old.据估计这个花瓶有2000年的历史。It is used to be thought that a new star must be due to a collision between two stars. 过去一直认为新星是由于两颗星星之间碰撞产生的。It has not been made clear when the new road is to be opened to traffic.还没弄清楚这条路将开始通车。It does not matter if I missed my train, because there is another later.没有赶上这趟火车没有关系,稍晚还有一趟。It happened that I saw him yesterday.碰巧我昨天看见他了。当“及物动词 + 宾语”较短时,也可用这种结构。例如:It shocked me that Peter did not tell anybody where he was.让我吃惊的是彼得没有告诉任何人他在哪里。It does not interest me whether you go or not.我对你去不去不感兴趣。
Ⅰ.选择题:1. _____ as much as one-fifth of all timber harvested is not used.A. The estimate                B. The estimate    C. They are estimated           D. It is estimated that2. _____ some mammals came to live in the sea is not known.   A. Which       B. Since        C. Although      D. How 3. _____ we have achieved is attributed to the guidance of our parents.   A. Whoever     B. Whatever     C. However      D. That 4. _____ wealthy does not necessarily mean that a man is greedy.   A. For the reason that he is        B. Just because he is    C. The reason of being           D. That he is 5. Although _____ happened in this developed country sounds like science fiction, it could occur elsewhere in the world.   A. which        B. what       C. how           D. it6. _____ she had forgotten to take her notebook.   


1. that引导
That he is still alive is a wonder. 他还活着,真是奇迹。
That we shall be late is certain. 我们要晚了,这是确定无疑的。
That he should have ignored the working class was natural. 他忽视工人阶级是很自然的。
That she is still alive is a consolation. 她还活着是使人感到宽慰的。
That she became an artist may have been due to her father’s influence. 她成为画家可能是受她父亲的影响。
That you are coming to London is the best news I have heard this long time. 你将来伦敦是好久以来我听到的最好消息。
That she was chosen made a tremendous stir in her village. 她被挑选上,在她村                    子里引起很大轰动。
2. whether引导
Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen. 是否对我们有害还要看一看。
Whether they would support us was a problem. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。
3. 连接代词引导
Whoever is top from wins the game when two matched players meet. 两强相争勇者胜。
Whichever (of you) comes in first will receive a prize. 无论(你们)谁先到都可以得奖。
Whichever you want is yours. 你要哪个哪个就是你的。
4. 连接副词引导
When we arrive doesn’t matter. 什么时候到没有关系。
How it was done was a mystery. 这是怎样做的是一个谜。
How this happended is not clear to anyone. 这件事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。
How many people we are to invite is still a question. 邀请多少人还是一个问题。
Where I spend my summer is no business of yours. 我在哪里过暑假不关你的事。
5. 关系代词型what引导
What we need is money. 我们需要的是钱。
What I want to know is this. 我想知道的就是这一点。
What’s done is done. 事已成定局。
What he says is not important. 他说的话并不重要。
What I am telling you is mere impressions. 我和你说的都不过是一些印象而已。
What make the river more beautiful are the lotus plants growing in the water. 为河水增色的是水里的荷花。
What you need is a good-sized canvas bag. 你需要的是一个比较大的帆布袋。
What I am afraid of is their taking him to Portugal. 我担心的是他们把他带到葡萄牙去。
What struck me was that they have all suffered a lot. 给我很深印象的是他们都受过很多苦。
(1) 对于以连词that引导的主语从句,通常用形式主语代主语从句:
It’s a pity that he didn’t come. 很遗憾他没来。
It is important that he should know about this. 他必须知道此事。
It’s vital that we be present. 我们出席是至关重要的。
It was intended that you be the candidate. 大家的意图是让你当候选人。
It is important that this mission not fail. 这项使命不失败至关重要。
It is essential that a meeting be convened this week. 本周开一次会非常重要。
It is appropriate that this tax be abolished. 废除这个税是恰当的。
It’s unfair that so many people should lose their jobs. 竟有这么多人失业这是不公平的。
It’s amazing that she should have said nothing about it. 她竟未谈及此事令人惊讶。
It’s unthinkable that they should deny my request. 他们竟然拒绝我的请求,这是不可思议的。
That they should refuse to sign the petition required great courage. 他们拒绝在请愿书上签字这是需要很大勇气的。
(2) 对于以连接代词(副词)引导的主语从句,可以使用形式主语代主语从句,也可直接在句首使用主语从句:
Whether they would support us was a problem. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。
It was a problem whether they would support us. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。
It remains to be seen whether it will do us harm or good. 它对我们是利是害,还得看看再说。
(3) 对关系代词型what引导的主语从句,通常直接将主语从句放在句首。如:
What we need is money. 我们需要的是钱。
What I want to know is this. 我想知道的就是这一点。
It is clear enough what he meant. 他是什么意思很清楚。
(4) 如果句子是疑问句,则必须用带形式主语it的结构:
Is it true that he is the girl’s father? 他是那女孩的父亲,是真的吗?
How is it that you are late again? 你怎么又迟到了?(from www.yygrammar.com)
引导主语从句的连词that 有时可省,有时不能省,其原则是:若that引导的主语从句直接位于句首,则that不能省略;若that引导的主语从句位于句末,而在句首使用了形式主语it,则that可以省略:
That you didn’t go to the talk was a pity. 很遗憾你没去听报告。(that不可省)
It was a pity (that) you didn’t go to the talk. 很遗憾你没去听报告。(that可省)


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